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Boeing 757-300

The 757-300, the stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Condor in 1999. With an overall length of 178.7 feet (54.5 m), the type is the longest single-aisle twinjet ever built. Designed to serve the charter airline market and provide a low-cost replacement for the 767-200, the 757-300 shares the basic design of the original 757, while extending the fuselage before and after the wings.[65] Eight standard cabin doors, plus a pair of over-the-wing emergency exits on each side,[28] enable the 757-300 to have a maximum certified capacity of 289 passengers. A higher MTOW of 272,500 pounds (124,000 kg) is specified, while fuel capacity remains unchanged; as a result, the stretched variant offers a maximum range of 3,395 nautical miles (6,290 km). Engines used on the type include the RB211-535E4B from Rolls-Royce and the PW2043 from Pratt & Whitney. Due to its greater length, the 757-300 features a retractable tailskid on its aft fuselage.

Condor ordered the stretched 757 to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10s and serve as low-cost, high-density transportation to holiday destinations such as the Canary Islands. Because tests showed that boarding the 757-300 could take up to eight minutes longer than the 757-200, Boeing and Condor developed zone-based boarding procedures to expedite loading and unloading times for the lengthened aircraft.[122] The 757-300 has been operated by mainline carriers Continental Airlines (now part of United Airlines), Northwest Airlines (now part of Delta Air Lines), and Icelandair; other operators have included American Trans Air (the first North American operator), Arkia Israel Airlines, along with charter carriers Condor and Thomas Cook Airlines. Production for the 757-300 totaled 55 aircraft,[44] of which 55 were in service in July 2014.

Boeing 757-200SF

The 757-200SF, a conversion of passenger 757-200s for cargo use, entered service with DHL Aviation in 2001. Modifications by Boeing Wichita in Kansas included the removal of passenger amenities, main deck structural reinforcement, and the installation of a 757-200PF forward fuselage section with a port-side cargo door. The forward two entry doors are retained, resulting in a main deck cargo capacity of 14 pallets, which is one less than the 757-200PF. Environmental controls can be fitted for animal cargo, and rear exits and window pairs are retained on some aircraft. Besides Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, Precision Conversions, and ST Aerospace Services have also handled 757-200SF conversions. In September 2006, FedEx Express announced a US$2.6 billion plan to acquire over 80 converted 757 freighters to replace its 727 fleet. In July 2011, 70 converted 757-200SFs were in service

Boeing 757-200M

The 757-200M, a convertible version capable of carrying cargo and passengers on its main deck, entered service with Royal Nepal Airlines in 1988. Also known as the 757-200 Combi, the type retains the passenger windows and cabin doors of the 757-200, while adding a forward port-side cargo door in the manner of the 757-200PF. Kathmandu-based Royal Nepal Airlines, later renamed Nepal Airlines, included the convertible model as part of an order for two 757s in 1986.
Nepal Airlines ordered the 757-200M to fulfill a requirement for an aircraft that could carry mixed passenger and freight loads, and operate out of Tribhuvan International Airport in the foothills of the Himalayas. Patterned after convertible variants of the 737 and 747, the 757-200M can carry two to four cargo pallets on its main deck, along with 123 to 148 passengers in the remaining cabin space. Nepal Airlines' 757-200M, which features Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 engines and an increased MTOW of 240,000 pounds (109,000 kg), was the only production example ever ordered.
In October 2010, Pemco World Air Services and Precision Conversions launched aftermarket conversion programs to modify 757-200s into 757 Combi aircraft. Vision Technologies Systems launched a similar program in December 2011. All three aftermarket conversions modify the forward portion of the aircraft to provide room for up to ten cargo pallets, while leaving the remaining space to fit around 45 to 58 passenger seats. This configuration is targeted at commercial charter flights which transport heavy equipment and personnel simultaneously. Customers for converted 757 Combi aircraft include the Air Transport Services Group, National Airlines, and North American Airlines

Boeing 757-200PF

The 757-200PF, the production cargo version of the 757-200, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1987. Targeted at the overnight package delivery market, the freighter can carry up to 15 containers or pallets on its main deck, for a volume of up to 6,600 cubic feet (187 m3), while its two lower holds can carry up to 1,830 cubic feet (51.8 m3) of bulk cargo. The maximum revenue payload capability is 87,700 pounds (39,800 kg) including container weight. The 757-200PF is specified with a MTOW of 255,000 pounds (116,000 kg) for maximal range performance; when fully loaded, the aircraft can fly up to 3,150 nautical miles (5,830 km). Because the freighter does not carry any passengers, it can operate transatlantic flights free of ETOPS restrictions. Power is provided by RB211-535E4B engines from Rolls-Royce, or PW2037 and PW2040 engines from Pratt & Whitney.
The freighter features a large, upward-opening main deck cargo door on its forward port-side fuselage. Adjacent to the large cargo door is a standard exit door used by the pilots. All other emergency exits are omitted, and cabin windows and passenger amenities are not available. The main deck cargo hold has a smooth fiberglass lining, and a fixed rigid barrier with a sliding access door serves as a restraint wall next to the flight deck. Both lower holds can be equipped with a telescoping baggage system to load custom-fitted cargo modules. When equipped for extended-range transatlantic operations, UPS 757-200PFs feature an upgraded auxiliary power unit, additional cargo bay fire suppression equipment, enhanced avionics, and an optional supplemental fuel tank in the aft lower hold. Total production for the 757-200PF totaled 80 aircraft. In July 2014, 78 of these were in service.

Boeing 757-200

The 757-200, the original version of the aircraft, entered service with Eastern Air Lines in 1983. The type was produced with two different door configurations, both with three standard cabin doors per side: the baseline version has a fourth, smaller cabin door on each side aft of the wings, and is certified for a maximum capacity of 239, while the alternate version has a pair of over-the-wing emergency exits on each side, and can seat a maximum of 224. The 757-200 was offered with a MTOW of up to 255,000 pounds (116,000 kg); some airlines and publications have referred to higher gross weight versions with ETOPS certification as "757-200ERs", but this designation is not used by the manufacturer. The first engine to power the 757-200, the Rolls-Royce RB211-535C, was succeeded by the upgraded RB211-535E4 in October 1984. Other engines used include the RB211-535E4B, along with the PW2037 and PW2040 from Pratt & Whitney. The latest version is sometimes called 757-200W – W for the added winglets. Its range with full payload is 3,850 nautical miles.
Although designed for short and medium length routes, the 757-200 has since been used in a variety of roles ranging from high-frequency shuttle services to transatlantic routes. In 1992, after gaining ETOPS approval, American Trans Air launched 757-200 transpacific services between Tucson and Honolulu. Since the turn of the century, mainline U.S. carriers have increasingly deployed the type on transatlantic routes to Europe, and particularly to smaller cities where passenger volumes are unable to support wide-body aircraft. Production for the 757-200 totaled 913 aircraft, making the type by far the most popular 757 model. In July 2014, 756 of different 757-200 versions were in service. As of February 2015, the longest commercial route served by a 757 is United Airlines' New York to Berlin flight at just over 4,000 nautical miles; the aircraft assigned to this route cannot fly with a full payload. United's 757s assigned to transatlantic routes are fitted with 169 seats.

Powerplants  
Two 166.4kN (37,400lb) RollsRoyce RB211-535C turbofans, or 178.8kN (40,200lb) RB211-535E4s, or 193.5kN (43,500lb) RB211-535E4-Bs, or 162.8kN (36,600lb) Pratt & Whitney PW2037s, or two 178.4kN (40,100lb) PW2040s, or 189.5kN (42,600lb) PW2043s.

Performance  
Max cruising speed 914km/h (493kt), economical cruising speed 850km/h (460kt). Range with P&W engines and 186 passengers 5053km (2728nm), with RR engines 4758km (2569nm). Range at optional max takeoff weight with P&W engines 7277km (3929nm), with RR engines 6888km (3719nm). 757-200PF - Speeds same. Range with 22,680kg payload and P&W engines 7195km (3885nm), with RR engines 6857km (3700nm).

Weights  
Operating empty with P&W engines 57,840kg (127,520lb), with RB211s 57,975kg (127,810lb). Basic max takeoff 99,790kg (220,000lb), medium range MTOW 108,860kg (240,000lb), extended range MTOW 115,665kg (255,000lb) or 115,895kg (255,550lb).

Dimensions  
Wing span 38.05m (124ft 10in), length 47.32m (155ft 3in), height 13.56m (44ft 6in). Wing area 185.3m2 (1994sq ft).

Capacity  
Flightcrew of two. 757-200 - Typical passenger arrangements vary from 178 two class (16 first & 162 economy), or 202 (12 first & 190 economy) or 208 (12 first and 196 economy) or 214 to 239 in all economy class. 757-200PF - Maximum of 15 standard 2.24 x 2.74m (88 x 108in) freight pallets on main deck.

Production  
987 757-200s had been ordered by late 2002, of which over 983 had been delivered.

Type  
Medium range narrowbody airliner

Schematics  

History
After a slow sales start, the medium range single aisle 757 has become yet another sales success story for Boeing.
Boeing considered a number of proposals for a successor to the 727 tri-jet during the 1970s, with many of these designs featuring the nose and T-tail of the earlier jet. It was not until later in that decade however that Boeing settled on a more conventional design featuring the same cross section as the 727 (not to mention the 737, 707 and 720) but with the fuselage considerably longer in length, an all new wing, nose and flightdeck and fuel efficient high bypass turbofan engines.
Boeing launched development of the 757 in March 1979 following orders from British Airways and Eastern. Developed in tandem with the larger widebody 767 the two types share a number of systems and technologies, including a common early generation EFIS flightdeck.
First flight was on February 19 1982 and the 757 entered service in January the following year. Subsequent versions to appear are the 757-200PF Package Freighter, a pure freighter, and the 757-200M Combi (only one has been built). The standard passenger aircraft is designated the 757-200, there being no -100. The stretched 757-300 is described separately.
Initial sales of the 757 were fairly slow, however orders picked up significantly in the mid to late 1980s as traffic on routes previously served by smaller 727s and 737s grew to require the 757's extra capacity. Today 757 sales comfortably exceed those of the 767, a position that was reversed until the late 1980s.

Boeing 747-8

Boeing 747-8 adalah pesawat komersial berbadan lebar yang diproduksi Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Secara resmi Boeing mengumumkan proyek ini pada tahun 2005, evolusi 747-8 adalah varian terbaru dari Boeing 747, dengan memperpanjang badan pesawat, merancang ulang sayap dan peningkatan efisiensi bahan bakar. Pesawat ini juga mampu terbang dengan kecepatan 0,85 mach(917 km/h) dan merupakan pesawat subsonik tercepat didunia. Pesawat ini merupakan satu-satunya model Boeing 747 yang saat ini masih diproduksi

Versi
Boeing 747-8 freighter
Boeing ini adalah versi barang Boeing 747-8 ini. Pesawat dapat mengangkut 345 ton Cargo. pesawat ini terbang pertama kali pada tahun 2010. Pengguna peratamanya adalah cargolux dan all nippon cargo. 747 telah menjadi sangat populer dengan pesawat Cargo Terbesar, membawa sekitar setengah dari angkutan udara di dunia pada 2007 . Dalam upaya untuk mempertahankan posisi dominan, Boeing merancang sebuah varian barang dari 747-8, bernama 747-8 Freighter atau 747-8F, yang diluncurkan pada tanggal 14 November 2005.747-8F akan menjadi model awal untuk masuk ke layanan (EIS). Seperti pada Boeing 747-400F, dek atas lebih pendek dari model penumpang, sedangkan 18 kaki 3 1 / 2 inci (5,575 m) belakang dari sayap. Dengan lb 975.000 (442.000 kg) berat maksimum take-off , akan memiliki kemampuan muatan total £ 308.000 (140.000 kg) dan jarak maksimum 4.390 NMI (8.130 km). Empat ruang palet tambahan akan dibuat pada dek utama, dengan baik dua tambahan kontainer dan dua tambahan palet , palet atau tiga tambahan, di dek bawah. 747-8F diharapkan untuk mencapai biaya operasi ton/mil 16% lebih rendah dari 747-400F dan menawarkan berbagai sedikit lebih besar. 747-8F akan memiliki kapasitas muatan lebih tetapi kurang dari kisaran saat ini 747-400ERF. Ketika Boeing meluncurkan-400ERF, kenaikan MTOW semua lb 35.000 (16.000 kg) atas 747-400F 875,000-910,000 (397,000-410,000 kg) memungkinkan maskapai penerbangan untuk lepas landas dengan lebih banyak bahan bakar, membakarnya selama penerbangan, dan tanah di berat yang sama seperti yang biasa 747-400F. Hal ini meningkatkan jangkauan 747-400ERF dibandingkan dengan 747-400F. Pembawa kargo sering bergerak mesin atau beban terpisahkan yang memerlukan pesawat dengan muatan yang lebih tinggi dan kemampuan mendarat. Seperti biasa dengan pesawat kargo, rentang diberikan dengan payload maksimum, bukan bahan bakar. 65.000 £ 747-8 (29.000 kg) meningkatkan MTOW telah diarahkan secara eksklusif untuk nya Nol-Fuel berat badan atau kapasitas payload. Jika lepas landas pada payload maksimum, 747-8 melepas dengan tank tidak penuh. Pada perjalanan di mana muatan tidak maksimum, pesawat dapat mengambil lebih banyak bahan bakar dan memperluas jangkauan.

Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental
pesawat boeing ini adalah pesawat dengan varian penumpang.pesawat ini di modivikasi di dek atas dan belakang.pesawat ini dipamerkan di Boeing Everett Factory seatle,washington.pesawat ini juga disebut pesawat antar benua,karena pesawat dapat menempuh jarak 15.000 KM tampa mengisi bahan bakar dan mengangkut 54 penumpang lebih banyak dibandingkan boeing 747 sebelumnya.type pesawat ini mementingkan kenyamanan pesawat,yaitu mengganti lampu biasa dengan lampu LED,menambahkan Bar mini, mengubah kursi biasa menjadi kursi aerodinamis, dan perancangan sistem suspensi yang baru.Untuk 747-8, Boeing telah mengusulkan beberapa perubahan tata letak interior pesawat. Kebanyakan terlihat akan tangga melengkung ke dek atas dan pintu masuk utama penumpang lebih luas . Kabin utama 747-8 yang menggunakan interior yang sama dengan 787. Sampah overhead melengkung, dan baris pusat dirancang untuk terlihat seolah-olah melekat pada langit-langit melengkung, daripada diintegrasikan ke dalam kurva langit-langit seperti pada 777 . Jendela juga akan ukuran mirip dengan tipe yang digunakan pada 777, yang 8% lebih besar dibandingkan pada arus 747-400-an. 747-8 akan menampilkan baru sistem pencahayaan solid-state light-emitting diode(LED) , yang dapat menciptakan suasana pencahayaan.Teknologi LED juga menawarkan keandalan ditingkatkan dan biaya pemeliharaan yang lebih rendah.Urutan pertama untuk 747-8 Intercontinental ditempatkan oleh pelanggan VIP yang dirahasiakan pada Mei 2006, secara luas diyakini sebagai kepala negara Timur Tengah. Lufthansa menjadi maskapai pertama yang memesan 747-8 Intercontinental pada 6 Desember 2006. Pada bulan Desember 2009, Korean Air mengumumkan pemesanan lima 747-8I. Boeing menyatakan konfigurasi perusahaan untuk 8i-dicapai pada November 2007.
Perakitan utama dari 8i 747-dimulai pada tanggal 8 Mei 2010. Tubuh bergabung terjadi pada tanggal 15 Oktober 2010, sedikit lebih cepat dari jadwal yang diproyeksikan. Pesawat pertama 747-8i selesai pada bulan Februari 2011, sebelum diresmikan pada upacara peluncuran di Everett, Washington pada tanggal 13 Februari 2011. pengiriman dimulai pada akhir 2011.
Pada tanggal 7 Maret 2011, diumumkan bahwa Air China telah sepakat untuk membeli lima 747-8I, tunduk pada persetujuan pemerintah, dengan harga $ 1,54 miliar. Air China mengatakan akan menggunakan pesawat untuk meningkatkan layanan internasional. Gauntlet tanah pengujian 8i-, yang tes sistem dengan mensimulasikan kondisi penerbangan, berlangsung pada tanggal 12 dan 13, 2011. penerbangan pertama 747-8i yang dilakukan pada tanggal 20 Maret 2011 dari Paine Field di Everett, Washington. kedua 747-8i terbang pertama bulan berikutnya dengan warna Lufthansa.

Boeing 747SP

747SP atau 'Special Performance,' diperkenalkan pada tahun 1976. Seri ini dikeluarkan untuk menyaingi Douglas DC-10 dan Lockheed L-1011 TriStar dan karena Boeing tidak ada pesawat berbadan lebar ukuran sederhana untuk bersaing dengan DC-10 dan Tristar. Biaya konstruksi 747 dan 737 yang tinggi pada akhir 1960 menyebabkan Boeing tidak mampu untuk membuat pesawat baru dan karena itu model 747 diperpendek dan dirancang ulang supaya kecepatan dan jarak maksimum disesuaikan dengan kapasitasnya. Seri SP, dengan konfigurasi 3-kelas, mampu membawa 220 penumpang dan terbang sejauh 10.500 km dengan kelajuan 980 km/jam.

Boeing 747SP adalah versi modifikasi dari pesawat jet Boeing 747 yang dirancang untuk penerbangan ultra jarak jauh. SP singkatan dari "Special Performance". Dibandingkan dengan pendahulunya, 747-100, 747SP mempertahankan badan lebar, empat-mesin, juga dengan desain dua dek, namun memiliki fuselage lebih pendek , tailplane lebih besar , dan trailing edge flaps disederhanakan. Berat pesawat diperingan oleh fuselage pendek memungkinkan jarak lebih panjang dan kecepatan meningkat dari konfigurasi 747 lainnya.

Boeing 747SP pertama kali dioperasikan oleh Pan Am pada tahun 1976. Beberapa pesawat dijual kepada pelanggan VIP dan pemerintah. Dalam pelayanan, Boeing 747SP mencatat beberapa catatan kinerja penerbangan, namun penjualan tidak memenuhi 200 unit seperti yang diharapkan, dan produksi pada akhirnya mencapai 45 pesawat.

747SP adalah satu-satunya pesawat yang mampu terbang dengan jarak terjauh, sampai kemunculanAirbus A340. Penerbangan yang menggunakan model ini antara lain adalah American Airlines, Pan Am, dan Qantas, karena kemampuan seri ini untuk terbang melintasi Lautan Pasifik memenuhi keperluan penerbangan-penerbangan ini untuk terbang ke Tokyo. South African Airways juga menggunakan 747SP untuk rute penerbangan dari Johannesburg ke London, ketika rezim apartheid berkuasa, maskapai ini tidak diperbolehkan untuk terbang melintasi negara-negara Afrika lainnya dan menyebabkan South African Airways cukup kerepotan, dan SP adalah penyelesaiannya.

Meskipun memiliki kemampuan istimewa, penjualan SP tidak seperti yang diharapkan, dimana hanya 45 buah yang terjual, dimana kebanyakan beroperasi untuk penerbangan di Timur Tengah dan Afrika. Salah satu maskapai yang kini masih menggunakan SP untuk membawa penumpang umum adalah Iran Air dan Syrian Air. Beberapa negara Arab Teluk, seperti Bahrain dan Arab Saudi juga masih menggunakan SP untuk penerbangan VIP.

Salah satu modifikasi spesial 747SP adalah pengamat astronomi SOFIA yang membawa teleskop inframerah yang berdiameter 2,5 meter. Sebelum dimodifikasi, pesawat tersebut dioperasikan oleh Pan Am dan dinamakan "Clipper Lindbergh", dan pesawat tersebut juga sempat beroperasi untuk maskapai United Airlines.

Powerplants
Four 218.4kN (48,750lb) Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7AW turbofans, or 222.8kN (50,100lb) Rolls-Royce RB211-524Bs or 229.5kN (51,600lb) RB211-524Cs, or 206.8kN (46,500lb) General Electric CF6-45A2s or CF6-50E2-Fs.

Performance
Max speed 1000km/h (540kt). Range with 331 passengers and baggage 10,840km (5855nm), range with 276 passengers 12,325km (6650nm), ferry range with max fuel and 13,610kg (30,000lb) payload 15,400km (8315nm).

Weights
Operating empty 147,420kg (325,000lb), max takeoff 317,515kg (700,000lb).

Dimensions
Wing span 59.64m (195ft 8in), length 56.31m (184ft 9in), height 19.94m (65ft 5in). Wing area 511m2 (5500sq ft).

Capacity
Flightcrew of three comprising two pilots and one flight engineer. Max high density single class seating for 440, typical two class seating for 28 first class and 288 economy class passengers

Production
Just 45 747SPs were built, of which approximately 18 remain in service by early 2005.

Type 
Long range high capacity widebody airliner

History
Boeing developed the 747SP in the mid 1970s as a longer range, shortened 747, trading passenger seating for extra range. The 747SP is the only 747 model to feature a changed fuselage length compared with the 747-100.
The 747SP first flew on July 4 1975, certification was awarded on February 4 1976 and first delivery (to Pan American) was in March 1976.
The 747SP's fuselage is shortened by 14.35m (47ft 1in) compared to other 747 models, while the vertical tail was increased in height to compensate for the reduced moment arm with the shorter fuselage. Structurally the 747SP was lightened in some areas because of the significant reduction in gross weights. Overall though the 747SP retained 90% commonality of components with the 747-100 and 200. While shortening the 747's fuselage increased the fuel fraction and thus range, it also meant that seating capacity was reduced.
The SP suffix in 747SP stands for Special Performance, and points to the ultra long range abilities of this 747 variant that preceded the later 747-400 by 15 years. The 747SP's range is best illustrated by the spate of long range distance records it set in the mid 1970s. The most prominent of those was the delivery flight of a South African Airways SP, which over March 23/24 1976 flew nonstop with 50 passengers from Paine Field in Washington State to Cape Town, South Africa, a distance of 16,560km (8940nm). This world nonstop record for a commercial aircraft stood until 1989 when a Qantas 747-400 flew 17,945km (9688mn) nonstop from London to Sydney.
Sales of the 747SP were modest despite the increased range, as the SP had poorer operating economics per seat compared to the 747-200. However the 747SP did pioneer a number of long range nonstop services that are now commonly flown by the 747-400.
Notable SP customers included South African Airways (who found the SP's extended range a great asset in bypassing African nations that denied it landing rights while South Africa's apartheid policies were in place), Qantas and PanAm, the latter pioneering nonstop trans Pacific Los Angeles/Sydney services.
In early 2005 less than twenty SPs remain in airline or corporate service.
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